Maintenance Basics

Introduction to Transmission and Distribution Maintenance
This course explains, in general terms, how transmission and distribution systems deliver power from a power plant to customers. The course describes the major components of a typical T&D system, how they function, and how electricity flows through these components on its journey from the power plant to customers.
Transmission
This program is designed to provide an introduction to the basic components that make up a transmission line. The program presents a basic overview of structures, conductors, and insulators commonly found on transmission lines. The program also covers the basic tasks that must be accomplished in order to build a transmission line.
Distribution

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed to help personnel recognize the basic elements of a distribution system and to gain an understanding of how each element works. This course also introduces basic equipment such as transformers, capacitors, regulators, circuit breakers, and other types of protective devices.

Substations and Switchyards

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course examines the role that substations and switchyards play in a T&D system. The course provides an overview of the purposes and functions of the major equipment used in substations and switchyards. Equipment used for protection, regulation, monitoring, and communication is introduced.

Basic Electricity

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Modern Industrial plants contain a great deal of electrical equipment that needs to be maintained and repaired. To perform electrical maintenance tasks correctly and efficiently, electricians and electrical maintenance personnel must have (1) a basic understanding of the fundamentals of electrical theory; (2) a specific knowledge of the way electrical devices operate; and (3) practical hands-on experience.

Alternating Current Fundamentals

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Most of the electrical equipment used today operates on alternating current (AC). The purpose of this training unit is to review significant terms, concepts, and principles associated with alternating current.

Climbing Wooden Poles

COURSE DESCRIPTION

In order to climb safely and efficiently, a lineman needs to understand and practice climbing techniques. This program introduces two methods used for climbing wooden poles. The program demonstrates proper techniques for safetying-on and off, methods of adjusting a safety strap while working on a pole, and the basic technique of maneuvering around a pole. A new section has been added describing the safe use of the popular BuckSqueeze Safety Strap.

Safety in Transmission and Distribution Maintenance

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed to familiarize trainees with the basic safe work practices and safety equipment that are used in transmission and distribution maintenance work.

Using Tools

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program describes the basic hand and power tools commonly used in distribution work. The program presents guidelines for using manual hand tools, power hand tools, and one type of powder-actuated tool. The program also covers the safety precautions that should be followed when using each type of tool.

Rigging 1

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Line crews are constantly required to use ropes, blocks, and other special equipment to raise and lower electrical components, tools, and equipment. In order to perform these tasks safely and efficiently, a fundamental knowledge of rigging and rigging equipment is necessary. This program concentrates on the basics of overhead rigging, including safe rigging practices, ropes, knots and knot tying, the use of handlines, and the use of blocks and tackle.

Rigging 2

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Many jobs performed on transmission and distribution systems require heavy loads to be rigged so that they can be lifted, moved, and stabilized while work is being done. This course identifies basic rigging equipment and discusses guidelines for rigging a job safely. It also demonstrates rigging methods using different types of rigging equipment. The following procedures are covered: rigging a transformer, rigging a running corner, changing out a crossarm, and transferring secondary lines.

Electrical Safety

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed to teach trainees about electrical hazards and about the protective devices and safety practices that can help prevent injuries and equipment damage on the job. The course discusses safety hazards and protective devices. It also presents a step-by-step explanation of safety practices associated with switching, tagging, testing, and protective grounding.

Hydraulic Derricks

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Many tools use hydraulic power to make a job easier. Some of the common jobs on electrical systems involve lifting or digging. This program discusses the major working parts, controls, and safe operating procedures for hydraulic derricks. The program also demonstrates how to use a digger derrick to dig a hole and install a utility pole.

System Protection and Monitoring

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course discusses the principles of protection and monitoring in a transmission and distribution system. The course explains the role of protective devices, system grounds, and monitoring and control equipment. Techniques for installing or replacing ground rods, arresters, and fuse links are presented. The course also describes how monitoring and control equipment is typically used in a transmission and distribution system.

Introduction to Metering

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed to present an overview of kilowatt-hour meters and meter operation. Although the program is intended to be introductory, several devices, procedures, and concepts presented assume a familiarity with basic electrical theory and distribution systems. Students without this prior training may require additional explanation or instruction.

Bucket Truck Rescue

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course demonstrates how to perform a bucket truck rescue. Trainees will see how to lower the boom in an emergency, and two ways to extract an incapacitated person from a bucket. This course also demonstrates the importance of being able to act quickly and decisively during an emergency situation.

Safety in Meter Work

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course covers the hazards and basic safety guidelines associated with meter work and emphasizes working safely near energized equipment, using caution when approaching potentially hazardous conditions, and using protective equipment properly.

Safety in Substations and Switchyards

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program focuses on the basic safety principles and practices applicable to substations and switchyard maintenance work. The program describes electrical, chemical, and personal hazards that may be encountered in substations and switchyards. General procedures for responding to imminent dangers and accidents are also presented.

Advanced Rigging

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This training program is designed to familiarize students with the various types of weights and tensions associated with rigging in line work. The safety factor for a job that includes rigging is also covered. The procedures and concepts presented assume a familiarity with basic electrical theory and transmission and distribution systems.

Material Handling Bucket Trucks

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Material handling bucket trucks are modified versions of the traditional bucket truck. They are designed specifically to handle moderate sized loads in addition to supporting personnel in buckets. While the two types of Bucket Trucks may look very much alike, there are important operational differences between them and operating a material handling bucket truck safely, requires knowledge of these differences and training in the skills to properly handle loads.

Bucket Trucks

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program addresses some of the safety guidelines that should be followed when operating a bucket truck at the job site, including a thorough pre-trip inspection. The program reviews procedures for handling traffic conditions safely and positioning bucket trucks securely on paved, unpaved, and hilly work surfaces. The program also describes safety equipment for using bucket trucks near energized lines, and guidelines for maneuvering bucket trucks around the work area.

Overhead - De-energized

Overhead Distribution Systems

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program covers the basic layout of overhead distribution systems. It explains how to identify circuits and equipment in the field and introduces delta- and wye-connected distribution systems. The basic theory underlying the operation of delta- and wye-connected distribution systems is also presented, and the differences between the two systems are discussed. The program also explains how to differentiate between 34.5 KV systems and 13.2 KV systems.

Service Installation

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course describes basic procedures for installing and connecting services. The course describes common types of service connectors, and demonstrates the basic steps involved in making a service connection. The course also demonstrates procedures for installing both overhead and underground residential services. This course describes three types of voltage tests that should be performed before making service connections. The course also describes procedures involved in installing a three-phase service and replacing a three-phase service without interrupting service to the customer. Typical safety practices and job preparations are also covered.

Pole Framing and Guying

COURSE DESCRIPTION

The main function of a utility pole is to support conductors. Because conductors are heavy, they can pull on a pole with a great deal of force. The equipment on a pole that supports the conductors must be constructed to withstand this force. This course describes methods used to frame a pole, that is, how to install crossarms and other conductor supports. This course also describes methods of supporting a pole using several different types of guying techniques.

Setting and Replacing Poles

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program presents some of the equipment and methods that can be used to set utility poles. The program describes three methods for digging holes, and outlines both power-operated and manual methods for installing poles. The program also includes guidelines for installing poles in open areas and safety considerations for installing poles around obstacles and energized lines. Additionally, this course describes basic methods for removing and replacing poles.

Safety in Overhead Line Maintenance

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course examines hazards that may be present during overhead line maintenance operations. The course also introduces protective equipment designed to create a barrier between linemen and high voltage lines and equipment, and reviews safety practices that will help ensure a safe work environment.

Multimeter Operation

COURSE DESCRIPTION

In this course trainees learn the difference between analog and digital multimeters, and how to read and use both types of multimeters. Trainees can then use their knowledge of multimeters in a variety of applications.

Using Line Test Equipment

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Line test equipment includes a variety of devices used to detect and measure electrical values in transmission and distribution systems. This program presents basic information on how to use common types of line test equipment to detect amperage and voltage in the field. The program shows how to use the equipment and discusses the kinds of readings that can be expected from line test equipment.

Tree Trimming

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Trees are common throughout the service areas covered by many utilities. When trees grow into, over, or near energized equipment, they may cause interruptions in electrical service, particularly during storms or strong winds. During an emergency, a tree crew may not be available, and it may not be possible to postpone a job. Linemen often handle small tree trimming jobs or work as part of a crew to clear large trees from power lines. This program describes basic methods of tree trimming as well as some of the hazards associated with tree trimming work and precautions that should be taken.

Safe Bucket Truck Operations

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course covers several aspects of bucket truck safety, including how to inspect a bucket truck prior to use, how to plan a job with safety in mind, and how to avoid shock hazards associated with working on or near bucket trucks.

Working on Distribution Poles

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program reviews some of the factors involved in planning a distribution job, including safety guidelines and site-specific considerations. The program also describes some of the conductors commonly used in secondary construction. In addition, the program reviews the basic procedures for paralleling a service with and without the use of a jumper.

Distribution Line Safety

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course introduces students to the principles and techniques of single-point, or equipotential grounding. For best results, students should have a basic knowledge of electrical theory, overhead distribution systems and equipment, grounding theory, equipment, and application and common work methods and procedures used in overhead distribution line maintenance.

Care and Testing of Tools and Equipment

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program reviews the fundamentals of caring for, storing, and inspecting some of the tools and equipment used in transmission and distribution work. The program demonstrates how to perform visual inspections, field inspections, and dielectric tests on rubber protective gear, line hose, hoods, mechanical jumpers, and hot sticks.

Pole Top Equipment - Cutouts and Reclosers

COURSE DESCRIPTION

During normal usage, pole top equipment is subjected to conditions such as heat, rain, lightning, and mechanical problems that can lead to equipment damage or failure. This course identifies some equipment used to prevent equipment damage or failure, and to provide coordinated protection for a distribution system. The course also explains how this equipment operates.

Pole Top Equipment - Transformers

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course provides an understanding of the basic procedures used to safely remove and install pole top transformers. Although specific types of transformers are used as examples, emphasis is placed on general procedures that apply to the majority of pole top transformers.

Pole Top Equipment - Voltage Regulators

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Voltage tends to decrease along a distribution feeder. It can also fluctuate above and below acceptable levels due to changing load conditions on the system. This course covers the basic theory and operating characteristics of voltage regulators, explains how to detect problems in their operation, and demonstrates how to safety replace them.

Pole Top Equipment - Switching Devices

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course explains how to repair and replace energized pole top equipment with a minimum of interruption to customers. It describes how to bypass and replace a recloser. It also shows how to inspect and repair one type of gang-operated switch, and how to bypass and replace a different type.

Pole Top Equipment - Capacitors

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Pole top capacitors are connected to circuits to accept and store charges. They are used to help overhead distribution feeder systems operate more efficiently and reliably. This course covers the basic theory and operating characteristics of overhead capacitors, explains how to detect problems in their operations, and demonstrates how to safely replace them when necessary.

Transformer Connections

COURSE DESCRIPTION

The purpose of this unit is to teach the common types of transformers and how they are connected. Basic concepts of transformers and primary systems are covered as well as single-phase connections. Single-phase distribution transformers can be interconnected to provide three-phase power in a number of different ways, providing a utility with the flexibility of meeting a variety of customer needs. This program demonstrates and explains how three-phase delta connections and three-phase wye connections are made. This program also explains how to make delta-wye, wye-delta, and open bank connections.

Power Quality

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Power quality has become an important concern within the utility industry. An understanding of power quality is especially important to workers, such as field operations personnel and special services technicians, who come into contact with the public.

Overhead - Energized

Distribution Line Installation and Removal

COURSE DESCRIPTION

When changes are made in the area around a distribution line, for example, when a road is widened or a new road is added, it may be necessary to relocate or replace a portion of the line. This program covers job planning, safety precautions, and job site preparation as they relate to installing a new distribution line and removing the existing line.

Distribution Line Replacement

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This is the first of a two-part course that describes how to replace conductors in an existing overhead line with new conductors. The situation described is one that often occurs when it is necessary to increase the size of the conductors in a line. This course describes how to reconfigure pole framing in order to make room for the new conductors to be pulled in. It also shows how and where to set up equipment such as pilot lines, pulling rigs, and tensioners. This course also describes how to safely pull, sag, dead-end, and tie in the new conductors. Finally, you’ll see one way to energize the new conductors, transfer loads from the old line to the new line, and then safely remove the old conductors.

Distribution Line Repair - Gloves

COURSE DESCRIPTION

To prevent interruption of service to as many customers as possible, distribution line repairs are often made while lines and equipment remain energized. Whenever work is done on energized equipment, the linemen doing the work must be insulated and isolated from all energized equipment and grounds. This training program discusses the basic principles involved in working on energized lines using insulated gloves. Work methods, communication, concentration, and safety are emphasized throughout the program.

Distribution Line Repair - Hot Sticks

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program describes several types of hot-line tools that are used to work on energized lines, including hot sticks, hot stick attachments, and accessory tools. The program describes the safety-related work practices associated with storing and inspecting hot sticks, and planning for hot stick jobs. In addition, the program demonstrates basic procedures for using hot-line tools and accessories to remove and install tie wires. This program also demonstrates how to use hot sticks to move single-phase lines and to change out a dead-end insulator.

Transformer Troubleshooting

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course describes basic procedures for troubleshooting various types of transformers and transformer banks. The course begins by examining different types of transformers, transformer connections, and overcurrent and overvoltage devices that are typically used to protect transformers. The program identifies some typical causes of transformer outages and describes some general considerations involved in responding to a trouble call. The dangers associated with and the potential sources of backfeed are also covered. This course demonstrates procedures for isolating and testing single-phase transformers and three-phase transformer banks. The course also describes how to temporarily restore service in single-phase and three-phase applications.

Troubleshooting Overhead Lines

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course describes methods of safely locating problems on overhead lines that result in loss of power to customers. These methods are called troubleshooting. This begins by describing the logical steps for troubleshooting, one method of troubleshooting called patrolling, common problems to look for, and safety precautions to observe when troubleshooting overhead lines. This program also describes how to locate problems on a primary line using various sectionalizing approaches. It also describes how to locate trouble on secondary lines using various testing approaches.

34.5 kV Rubber Glove Work

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Many companies are finding it necessary to use 34.5 KV distribution lines to keep up with customer demand for dependable, high-quality electric power. Linemen who work on these lines must be aware of the electrical hazards associated with this work. They must also be familiar with the safety equipment and procedures that enable them to perform their work safely and efficiently.

Overhead Troubleshooting 1

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Overhead systems are exposed to many hazards that can lead to a partial or total loss of power. When a problem occurs, troubleshooters are responsible for finding out what is wrong and determining how the problem can be corrected as quickly as possible. In order to locate and identify problems effectively, troubleshooters must be familiar with some basic steps of troubleshooting and know how to apply those steps to various situations. This course identifies some basic steps that can be used to troubleshoot any type of overhead system problem and describes how those steps can be applied in several different troubleshooting situations.

Overhead Troubleshooting 2: Emergency Conditions

COURSE DESCRIPTION

When damage from storms and disasters is extensive, a much larger than normal troubleshooting effort is usually required to get customers back on line as quickly as possible. To support this effort, companies often have special emergency plans in place to make sure that their employees can deal with the problems and conditions that are likely to be encountered. This course examines some of the conditions that tend to make troubleshooting overhead lines under emergency conditions different from normal troubleshooting.

Substation

Power Transformers 1

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course describes how power transformers work and introduces some of the more common types of power transformers found in substations and switchyards. This course also demonstrates how to recognize and identify specific classes of power transformers by their cooling systems and discusses how cooling systems work.

Power Transformers 2

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course demonstrates how to recognize and identify specific classes of power transformers by their sealing systems and discusses how these sealing systems work.

Circuit Breakers 1

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Part one of this course provides the trainee with an overview of circuit breakers and their operating principles. It also introduces the student to the fundamental concepts of arc extinguishing and circuit interruption. At the conclusion of this course, students should be able to describe the main functions of circuit breakers and identify them by their classification. In addition, they should be able to identify air-magnetic, air-blast, oil, and vacuum circuit breakers, and briefly describe how each one operates.

Circuit Breakers 2

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This training program is designed to provide the student with basic information about circuit breakers that are used in substations and switchyards. The course shows how arcs are extinguished in gas-blast and gas-puffer breakers, and covers four types of breaker operating mechanisms: solenoid, motor/spring, pneumatic, and hydraulic.

Voltage Regulators 1

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Utilities are required to provide power to their customers within a specific range of voltages. Voltages that are outside of that range may damage equipment or cause it to operate inefficiently. One method of maintaining voltage within a specified range is by using voltage regulators. This program discusses the operation and control of substation voltage regulators.

Voltage Regulators 2

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program describes the general procedures for performing voltage regulator field inspections and control checks. The program also describes how to remove a voltage regulator from service and how to put a new or replacement regulator into service.

Capacitors and Reactors

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Conditions exist in any transmission and distribution system that result in power losses in the systems and equipment that deliver power and in the systems and equipment that use power. In order to compensate for these power losses, utilities often use devices such as capacitor banks and shunt reactors.

Relays 1

COURSE DESCRIPTION

When a fault occurs in a transmission and distribution (T&D) system, current increases and voltage decreases. The increased current causes excessive heating, which, depending on where the fault occurs, can result in a fire or an explosion. If the fault is not quickly isolated, it can damage that may result in loss of service. T&D systems use various types of control systems to detect and isolate faults with minimum disturbance. A key component of all of these control systems is the protective relay.

Relays 2

COURSE DESCRIPTION

An electric power system includes generators, power transformers, transmission lines, switchgear, distribution circuits, and residential and business customer equipment. At any time, severe weather, accidents, or other factors may cause part of the system to fail. If the system is not properly protected, a failure can result in personal injuries and extensive equipment damage. One of the keys to protecting equipment and personnel from failures is the use protective relays.

Control Equipment

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Disturbances and failures in a transmission and distribution (T&D) system can interrupt customer service and damage system equipment. Control equipment is the general name given to devices designed to minimize the effects of disturbances and failures. Control equipment helps to limit the number of customers affected by a given disturbance, as well as limit damage to the T&D system.

High Voltage Terminations

COURSE DESCRIPTION

High-voltage cables are manufactured to exact specifications so that they can withstand a variety of mechanical and electrical stresses. When a high-voltage cable is terminated for a connection to a circuit or equipment in a substation or switchyard, the termination must also be made to exact specifications. If this is not done, the termination could become a weak point in the circuit.

Transmission

Transmission Structures

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Transmission lines and the structures that support them are key components to any transmission and distribution system. There are many different kinds of transmission structures, and each is designed to meet various power delivery needs and geographic considerations. Assembling and erecting a transmission structure requires planning, teamwork, and careful attention to detail.

Transmission Line Safety

COURSE DESCRIPTION

The most important concern in transmission line work is accomplishing each job safely. Safety on the job requires making the effort necessary to control working conditions, work practices, and human actions. Personal injuries and equipment damage are minimized when safe work practices are followed and when the hazards associated with transmission line work are minimized or eliminated.

Climbing Steel Poles and Towers

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Steel poles and towers used for transmission lines come in a variety of shapes, sized, and designs. Experience and practice are necessary in order to climb these structures safely and efficiently. This training unit presents a basic overview of the tools and equipment, planning, and techniques necessary for climbing steel poles and towers.

Transmission Line Installation

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Transmission line installation is a complex job that requires extensive planning, careful coordination or manpower and equipment, and a thorough mastery of construction procedures and techniques. This training program focuses on the part of that job involved with installing conductors on a structure.

Rigging for High Voltage Work

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Maintenance work on transmission lines is frequently done while the lines remain energized. Working on energized lines saves money and allows for uninterrupted customer service. Live-line work is possible, in part, because of special rigging tools and equipment that have developed to allow linemen to do the work safely and efficiently.

COURSE GOALS

Working on De-energized Transmission Lines

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Transmission lines have characteristics that make them different from distribution lines. Because of the high voltages associated with transmission lines and the increasing use of multiple transmission lines on a given right-of-way, or even on individual structures, linemen who work on de-energized transmission lines need to be aware of some special considerations.

Transmission Line Repair - Hot Sticks

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Taking transmission lines out of service for repairs or maintenance can be difficult and costly. For this reason, transmission lines are often worked on while they are energized. The two basic methods of working on energized lines are the bare hand method and the hot stick method. With the bare hand method, special tools and equipment allow direct contact with an energized conductor. With the hot stick method, insulated poles and other equipment are used to protect linemen from energized conductors.

Transmission Line Repair - Bare Hand Method

COURSE DESCRIPTION

The increased demand for electricity in recent years has made it necessary for power companies to build more transmission lines and more extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines. Taking these lines out of service for repairs or maintenance can be costly and difficult. As a result, lines are often worked on while they are energized. The two basic methods of working on energized lines are the hot stick method and the bare hand method. With the hot stick method, insulated poles are used to protect the linemen from energized conductors. With the bare hand method, special tools and equipment allow direct contact with an energized conductor.

Underground

Underground Residential Distribution Systems

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course identifies and describes three common types of underground residential distribution (URD) systems: radial feed, loop feed, and double feed systems. URD components, cables, and terminations are also introduced and discussed. This course also describes how URD cable and equipment are installed. It describes checks performed during typical URD system maintenance inspections and how the flexibility of URD systems allows various portions of a loop feed URD system to be installed without interrupting service to customers.

Safety in Underground Line Maintenance

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program describes some of the common safety hazards found in URD work environments and how to minimize the effects of electrical, atmospheric, and structural hazards. The program also presents a vault emergency situation and discusses safe rescue procedures.

Underground Cable Installation

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This program describes two methods of installing underground cable: direct-burying and pulling cable in conduit. The program demonstrates how to lay cable in an open trench and pull cable in conduit. This course also demonstrates how to use various types of equipment and tools for rigging manholes and for pulling cable in conduit.

Pad-Mounted Transformers and Switchgear

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course discusses the basics of underground transformer operations. It presents problems that arise when operating transformers and discusses troubleshooting techniques and inspection procedures. This course also describes the general characteristics of two basic types of pad-mounted switchgear: oil-immersed disconnect switches and transclosures. This course also describes how pad-mounted switchgear can be used to sectionalize and reroute power in an underground feeder system.

Cable Splicing 1

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Cable splicing is the process of joining two cable ends together while maintaining the cable’s original design characteristics. This course focuses on cable design and preparing a cable for splicing.

Cable Splicing 2

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course describes several ways to splice primary and secondary cables. It also includes instructions for using splice kits to splice primary cable.

Cable Terminations

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Electrical cables are routinely connected to many different types of equipment. When a connection to equipment is made, the cable must be terminated, or ended, at the connection point. This course discusses different types of cable terminations, how they are installed, and how they help cables function properly. Problems associated with voltage stress and the function of stress cones are also discussed.

Locating Primary Faults

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is a general introduction to fault location in primary URD cable. The course covers capacitor discharge equipment, how it is used to locate faults, and a demonstration of how to locate a cable fault.

Locating Secondary Faults

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course explains how voltage gradient equipment works and demonstrates how to use voltage gradient equipment to locate faults in secondary URD cable.

URD Troubleshooting

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course describes methods that can be used to troubleshoot two types of problems that may affect URD systems: transformer faults and cable faults.