Conditions exist in any transmission and distribution system that result in power losses in the systems and equipment that deliver power and in the systems and equipment that use power. In order to compensate for these power losses, utilities often use devices such as capacitor banks and shunt reactors.
This training program covers the functions of substation capacitors and reactors, and how they can be safely cleared, maintained, and tested.
SUBJECTS AND OBJECTIVES
Function of Capacitors and Reactors
- Define the following terms: working power, non-working power, capacitive power, inductive power, power factor, and unity power factor.
- Describe how the relationship between working and non-working power determines the efficiency of the power produced in a T and D system.
- Explain how capacitor banks and shunt reactors are used to improve power factor.
Clearing Capacitor Banks
- Describe how to safely de-energize, isolate, and test a substation capacitor bank.
- Describe how to safely ground a substation capacitor bank using portable grounds.
- Describe how to safely ground a substation capacitor bank that is equipped with switches.
Capacitor Bank Maintenance
- Describe maintenance tasks performed on substation capacitor banks.
- Identify common problems when inspecting substation capacitor banks.
- Describe how to safely remove individual capacitors and capacitor fuses.
- Describe special precautions when handling capacitors containing PCB’s
Capacitor Resistor and Insulator Testing
- Describe how to test the integrity of the internal resistor of a substation capacitor.
- Describe how to test the integrity of the insulators of a substation capacitor
Capacitor Capacitance Testing
- Describe several methods for checking the capacitance of substation capacitors.
- Describe how to check the balance of a substation capacitor bank.
- Identify and describe two basic types of substation shunt reactors.
- Identify common problems to look for when visually inspecting a substation oil-insulated shunt reactor and an air-core shunt reactor.
- Describe how to safely de-energize, isolate, test, and ground a shunt reactor.
- Describe how to test the insulation resistance of a substation shunt reactor.
- State the function of a substation series reactor and describe how a series reactor operates.